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The Balkans as the "East"
In the Balkans the "East" or Asia was more commonly identified with barbarism and chaos.
"In geographical position the nearest to European civilisation, but in social condition the most barbarous of the provinces of Turkey in Europe, Bosnia, including Turkish Croatia and the Herzegovina, extends to a point west of the longitude of Vienna, and interposes a savage and Oriental aspect between the Dalmatian shores of the Adriatic and the advancing culture of Serbia, Hungary, and Croatia." Georgina Muir MacKenzie, Travels in the Slavonic provinces of Turkey-in-Europe, 1875)